CARGO BODY UTILITY TRUCK

UNITS IN STUDY

Ford F650 Cargo Body #6328
2012 Cummins ISB6.7260

CARGO BODY DUTY CYCLE SUMMARY

As a utility truck, Unit #6328’s specific application is variable, but spends an average of 59% of its time at idle, and about 41% of its time driving.  When driving, approximately 75% of miles are in Top Gear.

Upon examination of our data, Lloyd Diesel discovered some important differences in the use of this unit during the data collection time frame. Changes in use are to be expected with a utility truck of this type, however, the observed change is significant to our findings.

However, supporting data shows that in spite of this change in use during our test period, our Duty Cycle Programming was still effective in improving Aftertreatment efficiency as well as key fuel economy measurements.

HIGHLIGHTS

• Improved DPF Efficiency by 35%
• Improved Regen Effectiveness
• Improved highway driving fuel economy by 21.81%
• Gained 2.27 mpg in drive use that makes up 85% of total engine miles
• AFTER LDT: 500,000 miles/12.68 mpg=39,432gal x $2.42/gal=$95,426
• BEFORE LDT: 500,000 miles/10.41 mpg=48,031gal x $2.42/gal=$116,234
• $20,808 fuel savings!
• Expected carbon footprint reduction of 33,377 lbs (16.5 tons) CO2 per 100,000 miles

FUEL FINDINGS

In the case of Unit #6328, there was a significant change in use during the time of the test compared to the previous average use. Our findings show a significant decrease specifically in Low Gear fuel economy, suggesting that not only did this unit spend more overall time in Low Gear, but more time working specifically in 1st gear, as opposed to just shifting out of 1st and working in 2nd gear.

These results are consistent with our finding of increased time spent in Low Gear, as although the drastic change in Low Gear fuel economy would still be considered an anomaly. These findings, however, are still significant because of their negative impact on overall regen effectiveness as well as overall fuel economy, but closer examination shows the true effectiveness of our Duty Cycle Programming.

While Overall fuel economy average declined during the test period due to the 12% increase in time spent working in Low Gear, there is a 21.81% improvement in combined Top Gear and Gear-Down fuel economy.

This improvement is a more accurate representation of expected fuel economy improvements because the time spent in those gears was consistent between the test period and the previous average. Of important note, while the “time” spent in those gears may be low, Top Gear and Gear-Down make up 84% of the total miles (22,434 miles out of 26,705 engine miles) of this Unit, and 75% of drive fuel used, which is how the true value of improved fuel economy will be realized.

  • Unit #6328
    BEFORE LDT
  • Unit #6328
    LDT OPTIMIZED

REGEN EFFECTIVENESS

Analyzing key regen measurements is how Lloyd Diesel is able to determine the efficiency of the DPF, overall DPF health, DOC health, and how effective the regens are at cleaning the DPF.

We are able to capture data from the 3 most recent regens. Comparing those 3 regens to the regens prior to LDT, you will see that DPF efficiency (average maximum differential pressure) and regen effectiveness has been improved.

Max differential pressure of the DPF is a key indicator of how dirty the filter is. By analyzing trends in this measurement, Lloyd Diesel is able to ascertain not just the overall health of the DPF, but the effectiveness of regen attempts. A cleaner DPF is a more efficient DPF, and provides for more optimal operating conditions for the rest of the Aftertreatment system and the engine. Lloyd Diesel considers optimal DPF health and regen efficiency for Unit #6328 to be as close to 1.0 inHg as possible. While the previous inHg readings were acceptable, they were not optimal.

DPF EFFICIENCY BEFORE LDT AFTER LDT
Average max (inHg) 1.53 1.0
Highest max (inHg) 2.3 1.2
Lowest max (inHg) 1.1 0.8

CONCLUSION

Unit #6328 demonstrated significant improvement in Aftertreatment and DPF efficiency after Lloyd Diesel performed custom Duty Cycle Programming, evidenced by a 34.64% improvement in DPF health, and a improvement in the quality of regens. This is despite a change in duty cycle during the test period that would normally be detrimental to DPF health.

Additionally, despite a change in duty cycle during the test period that compromised Overall Fuel Economy, Unit #6328 still demonstrated a 21.81% (2.27 mpg) improvement in Fuel Economy in drive use that makes up approximately 85% of total engine miles and 75% of drive fuel use.

Lloyd Diesel concludes that Duty Cycle Programming has been effective in improving Aftertreatment and DPF efficiency for Unit #6328, resulting in significant improvements in fuel economy and reductions in environmental impact. It is our assertion that as this unit’s duty cycle trends back towards the previous average use, this Unit will realize even more significant benefits from our Duty Cycle Programming.

Additionally, and of even greater importance, is that LDT’s Aftertreatment Preventative Maintenance will teach Cal Trans’ Lead Mechanics how to measure regen effectiveness and DPF health, allowing you to anticipate and control downtime related to DPF failure, and prevent premature failure of the Aftertreatment.

 

VACTOR CATCH BASIN/SEWER CLEAN TRUCK

UNITS IN STUDY

Vactor Catch Basin/Sewer Clean #3757
2008 Cummins ISM425V

VACTOR/SEWER CLEAN DUTY CYCLE SUMMARY

Idling and PTO are traditionally two of the worst possible applications for the health of the Aftertreatment system. When in PTO, the engine is working hard, causing the DPF to get excessively dirty, but the Aftertreatment is traditionally unable to perform a passive regen during this application. Passive regen is also typically disabled during idle or low speed use.

Unit #3757 spends nearly 75% of its operational time in applications which dirty the DPF but in which passive regen is normally unavailable. Regen typically only occurs during long periods of driving at a constant freeway speed. Essentially, Unit #3749 spends 3/4ths of its time plugging the DPF, and only 1/4th of its time in an application to potentially clean it. And of that 25% of drive time, not even half of it is in Top Gear, when a regen would be most effective.

Lloyd Diesel used this information to make the requisite parameter changes for our Duty Cycle Programming.

HIGHLIGHTS

Highlights:
• LDT Initial Inspection identified regen and DPF issues that did not have any fault code indicators
• Decreased PTO Fuel Rate by 0.39 gph
• Decreased Idle Fuel Rate by 0.34 gph
• Decreased Overall Fuel Rate average by 1.14 gph
• Increased average time between regen from 53 hours to 80 hours and counting

FUEL FINDINGS

Fuel economy is highly dependent on many different variables, especially in a vocational duty cycle. “Overall” fuel economy findings are often misleading, as they do not take into account fuel economy relative to most common, or most frequent use.

To realize the true benefits of any positive fuel economy changes, Lloyd Diesel analyzes fuel economy and fuel consumption specific to a vehicle’s duty cycle.

Revisiting the Duty Cycle for Unit #3757, approximately 70% of Engine Run Time is in PTO or Idle. The fuel ratings for these applications are the most important in determining true fuel use benefits.

These improvements are directly related to the improvements made through Duty Cycle Programming along with our recommendations.

  • Unit #3757
    BEFORE LDT
  • Unit #3757
    LDT OPTIMIZED

REGEN FINDINGS

Analyzing key regen measurements is how Lloyd Diesel is able to determine the efficiency of the DPF, overall DPF health, DOC health, and how effective the regens are at cleaning the DPF.

We are able to capture data from the 10 most recent regen attempts. Due to the relatively short test period, along with improved efficiency of the Aftertreatment, this unit had not performed a regen in the 80 hours of the pilot, when the previous average time between regens was 53 hours.

While a before/after comparison is not possible due to the lack of data, Lloyd Diesel still analyzes the existing regen history to determine the quality of regens prior to our service.

DPF Max Differential (inHg)

Max differential pressure of the DPF is a key indicator of how dirty the filter is. By analyzing trends in this measurement, Lloyd Diesel is able to ascertain not just the overall health of the DPF, but the effectiveness of regen attempts. A cleaner DPF is a more efficient DPF, and provides for more optimal operating conditions for the rest of the Aftertreatment system and the engine.

DPF inHg history for Unit #3757 shows that with an average inHg of 3.31, the DPF was outside  Lloyd Diesel’s acceptable range for health and usability. This data, along with the poor regen history, is why Lloyd Diesel recommended to replace the DPF.

Regen Effectiveness: DPF Intake/Outlet Temperature

Lloyd Diesel analyzes max DPF intake and outlet temperatures to measure regen effectiveness. Using Lloyd Diesel standards for regen analysis, temperature is a key marker for how effective a regen is in cleaning the DPF, as well as the overall health of the DPF and Aftertreatment. The findings show that prior to Duty Cycle Programming, only 55% of regen attempts were able to reach ideal Intake and Outlet temperatures. Intake and Outlet average temperatures were also well below ideal. Regen’s which don’t reach the ideal temperature range are less effective at cleaning the DPF.

Duty Cycle Programming ensures that regens will be more effective, leading to a vehicle that operates more efficiently and reliably. Unit #3757 was regening at an acceptable rate before the test period. However, because the regens are not as effective as they could be, the DPF failed prematurely and needed to be replaced.

CONCLUSION

Unit #3757 demonstrates the effectiveness of Lloyd Diesel Duty Cycle Programming in improving Aftertreatment and DPF efficiency even with only a short test period.

Duty Cycle Programming along with our recommendations contributed directly to a significant improvement in fuel use rates. This results in a significant reduction in fuel use, fuel expense, and carbon footprint.

Our service also identified that this Unit was not regening effectively, with Intake and Outlet temperature averages well below ideal. Duty Cycle Programming is designed to correct this common issue, and Lloyd Diesel is confident that this will be demonstrated over time. Improving regen effectiveness reduces the chances of premature DPF failure.

Additionally, and of even greater importance, is that LDT’s Aftertreatment Preventative Maintenance will teach Cal Trans’ Lead Mechanics how to measure regen effectiveness and DPF health, allowing you to anticipate and control downtime related to DPF failure, and prevent premature failure of the Aftertreatment.

Unit #3757 has demonstrated the effectiveness Lloyd Diesel’s Optimization service, while also demonstrating the importance of adopting our Aftertreatment Preventative Maintenance program to identify and prevent expensive repairs and downtime.

The most important finding in this case, however, has nothing to do with improvements in various measurables. Just as was the case with Vactor Unit #3749, there were no check engine lights or fault codes tripped to alert the driver or service department of the poor health of the DPF, or of the regen inefficiency

Eventually, Unit #3757 would go through the normal progression of fault codes and check engine lights until the problem was finally addressed due to persistent check engine lights, or more likely, due to a significant degradation of operational efficiency or mechanical failure.

This underscores the importance of Lloyd Diesel’s Aftertreatment Preventative Maintenance training, which provides the education and guidelines to forecast issues, and diagnose problems, without being fault code dependent.

SWEEPER TRUCK

UNITS IN STUDY

Sweeper Conv #4598
2008 Cummins ISB280 – Allianz

SWEEPER DUTY CYCLE SUMMARY

As a sweeper, Unit #4598’s specific application is to perform street cleaning/sweeping service. Overall, Unit #4598 spends approximately 30% of its time idling, 45% in PTO, and 25% of the time driving.  When driving, approximately 57% of miles are driven in Low Gear.

Idling and PTO are traditionally two of the worst possible applications for the health of the Aftertreatment system. When in PTO, the engine is working hard, causing the DPF to get excessively dirty, but the Aftertreatment is traditionally unable to perform a passive regen during this application. Passive regen is also typically disabled during idle or low speed use.

This Unit spends about 75% of its operational time in applications which dirty the DPF but in which passive regen is normally unavailable. Regen typically only occurs during long periods of driving at a constant freeway speed. Essentially, Unit #4598 spends 3/4ths of its time plugging the DPF, and only 1/4th of its time in an application to potentially clean it (driving). And of that 25% of drive time, only 15% of the mileage is in Top Gear, when a passive regen would be possible.

HIGHLIGHTS

Highlights:
• Increased Drive Average Fuel Economy by 0.73 mpg
• BEFORE LDT: 5.06 mpg
• AFTER LDT: 5.79 mpg
• Improved Low Gear Fuel Economy by 0.96 mpg
• BEFORE LDT: 4.33 mpg
• AFTER LDT: 5.29 mpg
• Improved Top Gear Fuel Economy from 8.66 mpg to 8.75 mpg
• Decreased Idle Fuel Rate

REGEN FINDINGS

Analyzing key regen measurements is how Lloyd Diesel is able to determine the efficiency of the DPF, overall DPF health, DOC health, and how effective the regens are at cleaning the DPF.

Lloyd Diesel is able to capture the 10 most recent regen attempts for analysis. For the purposes of this pilot study, we compare the regen history prior to Duty Cycle Programming with the regen history obtained during the test period, however, in the case of Unit #4598 there was not sufficient data to make a thorough comparison due to a lack of regen attempts during the test period.  While a before/after comparison is not possible in this case, Lloyd Diesel still analyzes the existing regen history to determine the quality of regens prior to our service.

Max differential pressure of the DPF is a key indicator of how dirty the filter is. By analyzing trends in this measurement, Lloyd Diesel is able to ascertain not just the overall health of the DPF, but the effectiveness of regen attempts. A cleaner DPF is a more efficient DPF, and provides for more optimal operating conditions for the rest of the Aftertreatment system and the engine. DPF inHg history for Unit #4598 shows that with an average inHg of 2.22, the current DPF is within Lloyd Diesel’s acceptable range for health and usability.

Lloyd Diesel also analyzes max DPF intake and outlet temperatures to measure regen effectiveness. Using Lloyd Diesel standards for regen analysis, temperature is a key marker for how effective a regen is in cleaning the DPF, as well as the overall health of the DPF and Aftertreatment.

The findings show that with only 33% of regen attempts able to reach ideal Intake and Outlet temperatures, Unit #4598 was not regening effectively prior to the pilot study. The one regen attempt that did occur during the test period demonstrates both intake and outlet temperatures meeting Lloyd Diesel’s “good” criteria. Improving regen effectiveness, as measured by consistently reaching ideal temperatures, is achieved through Duty Cycle Programming, and allows the DPF to stay cleaner, longer. This results in a more efficient and reliable vehicle.

FUEL FINDINGS

Fuel economy is highly dependent on many different variables, especially in a vocational duty cycle. “Overall” fuel economy findings are often misleading, as they do not take into account fuel economy relative to most common, or most frequent use.

To realize the true benefits of any positive fuel economy changes, Lloyd Diesel analyzes fuel economy and fuel consumption specific to a vehicle’s duty cycle.

Revisiting the Duty Cycle for Unit #4598, approximately 57% of Engine Miles are driven in Low Gear, and approximately 75% of Engine Run Time in PTO or Idle. The fuel ratings for these applications are the most important in determining true fuel use benefits.

These improvements are directly related to the improvements in DPF efficiency and Regen effectiveness from Duty Cycle Programming.

  • Unit #4598
    BEFORE LDT
  • Unit #4598
    LDT OPTIMIZED

CONCLUSION

Unit #4598 demonstrates the effectiveness of Lloyd Diesel Duty Cycle Programming in improving Aftertreatment and DPF efficiency even with only a short test period.

Duty Cycle Programming was able to improve the quality of regen attempts, and contributed to a significant improvement in fuel economy and fuel use rate. This results in a significant reduction in fuel use, fuel expense, and carbon footprint.

Our service also identified that this Unit was not regening effectively, reaching “ideal” temperature only 33% of the time. Duty Cycle Programming is designed to correct this common issue, and Lloyd Diesel is confident that this will be demonstrated over time. Improving regen effectiveness reduces the chances of premature DPF failure.

Additionally, and of even greater importance, is that LDT’s Aftertreatment Preventative Maintenance will teach Cal Trans’ Lead Mechanics how to measure regen effectiveness and DPF health, allowing you to anticipate and control downtime related to DPF failure, and prevent premature failure of the Aftertreatment

Unit #4598 has demonstrated the effectiveness Lloyd Diesel’s Optimization service, while also demonstrating the importance of adopting our Aftertreatment Preventative Maintenance program to identify and prevent expensive repairs and downtime.

WHY WASTE MORE TIME AND MONEY? GET YOUR TRUCK ENGINE OR FLEET OPTIMIZED TODAY.